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Italy



Italy, officially the Italian Republic, is a unitary parliamentary republic in Southern Europe. To the north, Italy borders France, Switzerland, Austria, and Slovenia, and is approximately delimited by the Alpine watershed, enclosing the Po Valley and the Venetian Plain. To the south, it consists of the entirety of the Italian Peninsula and the two biggest Mediterranean islands of Sicily and Sardinia. Italian territory also includes the islands of Pantelleria, 60 km east of the Tunisian coast and 100 km southwest of Sicily, and Lampedusa, at about 113 km from Tunisia and at 176 km from Sicily, in addition to many other smaller islands. The sovereign states of San Marino and the Vatican City are enclaves within Italy, while Campione d'Italia is an Italian exclave in Switzerland. Italy covers an area of 301,338 km2 and has a largely temperate climate. With 59.7 million inhabitants, it is the fifth most populous country in Europe. Italy is also the fourth-largest economy on the European Union, third in the Eurozone and ninth in the world. Italy's capital and largest city, Rome, has for centuries been the leading political and religious centre of Western civilisation, serving as the capital of both the Roman Empire and Christianity. During the Dark Ages, Italy endured cultural and social decline in the face of repeated invasions by Germanic tribes, with Roman heritage being preserved largely by Christian monks. Beginning around the 11th century, various Italian cities, communes and maritime republic rose to great prosperity through shipping, commerce and banking (indeed, modern capitalism has its roots in Medieval Italy);concurrently, Italian culture flourished, especially during the Renaissance, which produced many notable scholars, artists, and polymaths such as Leonardo da Vinci, Galileo, Michelangelo and Machiavelli. Meanwhile, Italian explorers such as Polo, Columbus, Vespucci, and Verrazzano discovered new routes to the Far East and the New World, helping to usher in the European Age of Exploration. Nevertheless, Italy would remain fragmented into numerous warring states for the rest of the Middle Ages, subsequently falling prey to larger European powers such as France, Spain, and later Austria. Italy would thus enter a long period of decline that lasted until the beginning of the 18th century.

Geography: Italy is located in Southern Europe and comprises the boot-shaped Italian Peninsula and a number of islands including the two largest, Sicily and Sardinia. It lies between latitudes 35° and 47° N, and longitudes 6° and 19° E. The country's total area is 301,230 square kilometres, of which 294,020 km2 is land and 7,210 km2 is water. Including the islands, Italy has a coastline and border of 7,600 kilometres on the Adriatic, Ionian, Tyrrhenian seas and borders shared with France, Austria , Slovenia ad Switzerland. San Marino and Vatican City. The country is situated at the meeting point of the Eurasian Plate and the African Plate, leading to considerable seismic and volcanic activity. There are 14 volcanoes in Italy, four of which are active: Etna Vulcano and Vesuvius. Vesuvius is the only active volcano in mainland Europe and is most famous for the destruction of Pompeii and Herculanum. Several islands and hills have been created by volcanic activity, and there is still a large active caldera, the Campi Flegrei north-west of Naples.


The Architecture of Ancient Rome adopted the external Greek architecture around the 2nd century BC for their own purposes, creating a new architectural style. The two styles that are often considered one body of classical architecture. This approach is considered reproductive, and sometimes it hinders scholars' understanding and ability to judge Roman buildings by Greek standards, particularly when relying solely on external appearances. The Romans absorbed Greek influence, apparent in many aspects closely related to architecture; for example, this can be seen in the introduction and use of the Triclinium in Roman villas as a place and manner of dining. The Romans, similarly, were indebted to their Etruscan neighbors and forefathers who supplied them with a wealth of knowledge essential for future architectural solutions, such as hydraulics and in the construction of arches. Social elements such as wealth and high population densities in cities forced the ancient Romans to go discover new (architectural) solutions of their own. The use of vaults and arches together with a sound knowledge of building materials, for example, enabled them to achieve unprecedented successes in the construction of imposing structures for public use. Examples include the aqueducts of Rome, the Baths of Diocletian and the Baths of Caracalla, the basilicas and perhaps most famously of all, the Colosseum. They were reproduced at smaller scale in most important towns and cities in the Empire. Some surviving structures are almost complete, such as the town walls of Lugo in Hispania Tarraconensis, or northern Spain.


Bologna


Bologna is the largest city (and the capital) of Emilia-Romagna Region in Italy. It is the seventh most populous city in Italy, located in the heart of a metropolitan area (officially recognized by the Italian government as a citta metropolitana) of about one million. The city, the first settlements of which date back to at least 1000 BC, has always been an important urban centre first under the Etruscans (Velzna/Felsina) and the Celts (Bona), then under the Romans (Bononia), then again in the Middle Ages, as a free municipality (for one century it was the fifth largest European city based on population). An important cultural and artistic centre, its importance in terms of landmarks can be attributed to homogenous mixture of monuments and architectural examples (medieval towers, antique buildings, churches, the layout of its historical centre) as well as works of art which are the result of a first class architectural and artistic history. Bologna is also an important transportation crossroad for the roads and trains of Northern Italy, where many important mechanical, electronic and nutritional industries have their headquarters. According to the most recent data gathered by the European Regional Economic Growth Index (E-REGI) of 2009, Bologna is the first Italian city and the 47th European city in terms of its economic growth rate. Bologna is home to prestigious cultural, economic and political institutions as well as one of the most impressive trade fair districts in Europe. In 2000 it was declared European capital of culture and in 2006, a UNESCO “city of music”. The city of Bologna was selected to participate in the Universal Exposition of Shanghai 2010 together with 45 other cities from around the world. Bologna is also one of the wealthiest cities in Italy, often ranking as one of the top cities in terms of quality of life in the country: in 2011 it ranked 1st out of 107 Italian cities.

Bologna is situated on the edge of the Po Plain at the foot of the Apennine Mountains, at the meeting of the Reno and Savena river valleys. As Bologna's two main watercourses flow directly to the sea, the town lies outside of the drainage basin of the River Po. The Province of Bologna stretches from the western edge of the Po Plain on the border with Ferrara to the Tuscan-Emilian Apennines.


Cuisine: Bologna is renowned for its culinary tradition. It has given its name to the well-known Bolognese sauce, a meat based pasta sauce called in Italy ragu alla bolognese but in the city itself just ragu as in Tagliatelle al ragu. Situated in the fertile Po River Valley, the rich local cuisine depends heavily on meats and cheeses. As in all of Emilia-Romagna, the production of cured pork meats such as prosciutto, mortadella and salami is an important part of the local food industry. Well-regarded nearby vineyards include Pignoletto dei Colli Bolognesi, Lambrusco di Modena and Sangiovese di Romagna. Tagliatelle with ragu, lasagne, tortellini served in broth, and mortadella, the original Bologna sausage, are among the local specialties. Traditional Bolognese desserts are often linked to holidays, such as fave dei morti, multi-colored almond paste cookies made for All Saints' Day, jam-filled raviole cookies that are served on Saint Joseph's Day, and carnival sweets known as sfrappole. Torta di riso, a custard-like cake made of almonds, rice and amaretto, is made throughout the year.



Liceo Artistico "F. Arcangeli" - Istituto D'arte



The Arcangeli Art High School (Liceo Artistico Arcangeli) was established in 1923 detaching from the Accademia di Belle Arti, (Academy of Fine Arts) which constituted the lower course.In the framework of the reform of the national education it was structured as a four-year course aimed at promoting knowledge in the field of fine figurative arts. In 1928, the great painter Giorgio Morandi taught Figurative Arts and he was not the only one who improved school reputation since over the years other well-known artists with practice and sensibilities have contributed to the quality of the school.

The teaching path of the school is directed to the study of the aesthetic phenomena and artistic practice. It promotes the acquisition of specific methods of research and artistic production and favours the mastery of visual languages and techniques. It supplies the student the necessary tools to know art history and cultural contexts in order to grasp current society values and knowledge.

The school is attended by many commuter pupils as it is intended to serve a large area around the metropolitan city of Bologna though Liceo Arcangeli.In recent years the number of pupils with a migrant background has significantly increased in the school which has taken care of their educational progress with special projects: they concern mainly linguistic support and integration art activities able to overcome lingual barriers and favour integration. A general goal of school integration politics is integrating and simultaneously keeping identity and cultural orientation in order to increase education participation and enhance diversities.

Likewise, pupils with SEN and pupils with learning difficulties are helped to reach their full potential and to make a successful transition to the world of higher education, training or work. The SEN and disability department comprises a number of specialist teaching staff and teaching assistants who provide appropriate support together with non-school partners (welfare organisations, municipalities ) on the basis of the principles of inclusion in education.

To reach anyone’s goal Liceo Arcangeli has partnerships with the world of work and culture to help pupils with study and future career orientation. Teachers support development of competences proposing projects involving partners from the outside world and making use of different contemporary art languages:the aim is to improve the pupils’ sense of initiative and entrepreneurship.